iron in ancient china

Try During that time, tin, lead and silver production in, In the Tang Dynasty (618-907) there were 104 iron mines and 62 copper mines all over the country, excluding. While they tried to keep many of these secret from the rest of the world, trade on the Silk Road eventually allowed the inventions that they created to expand to other areas. As far back as the Shang Dynasty the (1600-1100BC), Chinese people began to learn to use iron. More likely there were Chinese smiths in the Shang and earlyZhou who hot-forged meteoritic iron and produc… Section 4 China, Volume: 9; Author: Donald B. Wagner. Others experienced a rise and fall, but during the thousands of years, the Chinese developed incredible tools and inventions. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion This was probably done by putting the ore into a small furnace, then heating it up to extreme temperatures. In the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), iron production developed remarkably. The earliest iron casting, which was first practiced in Wu (or possibly neighbouring Chu) at about the same time bloomery iron smelting was introduced, may still have been an indigenous development in this area, employing the carburisation and melting of iron blooms … It was undoubtedly the use of cast iron in ancient China that made it possible for every peasant to have iron implements. The Chinese used different techniques for creating iron and steel weaponry. 573 p. Few technological developments have had a greater impact on Chinese history than the discovery of iron smelting. Iron and steel in ancient China: origins and technical change - Volume 68 Issue 261 Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. In: Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extrême-Orient. As Qin Emperor Shihuang unified, , he set up iron officials in production areas in order to increase treasury income and strengthen the centralized power. Wagner hypothesizes that it was in the less perfectly controlled furnaces of the southeast, the only area where bronze appears to have been used extensively in agricultural tools, that iron would tend to appear frequently as an unwanted by-product of copper smelting. In the 5th century BCE it was made up of several rival kingdoms. It is testimony to the speed with which archaeological discoveries can require modifications in previously held views that Wagner, ever open-minded about the implications of evidence not previously available to him, has already modified parts of, Bulletin de l'École française d'Extrême-Orient. The Qin Dynasty (221-206BC) saw rapid development of the iron industry. Iron Making History in China As far back as the Shang Dynasty the (1600-1100BC), Chinese people began to learn to use iron. Well before the advent of recognizable civilization in the region, the land was occupied by hominids. [Donald B Wagner] Home. Account & Lists Account Returns & Orders. China's artificial smelting iron is later than the two river basins in West Asia and Egypt. Also, rules and regulations governing the industry were implemented, mainly for the protection of government-owned mines. Until now, the most influential work in English on this topic has been Joseph Needham's 1964 lecture for the Newcomen Society, The Development of Iron and Steel Technology in China. Read Iron and Steel in Ancient China (Handbook of Oriental Studies, Section 4 China) book reviews & author details and more at Amazon.in. During the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), iron mines were mostly privatized. Iron and Steel in Ancient China: Second Impression, With Corrections (Handbuch Der Orientalistik/4. WorldCat Home About WorldCat Help. Buy Iron and Steel in Ancient China by Wagner, Donald B online on Amazon.ae at best prices. About 0% of these are Casting. and originated in "a partially Sinified non-Chinese ('barbarian') culture in southeast China", i.e. Zinc began to be used in metal smelting. Gunpowder in Ancient China - Ancient China for Kids! the state of Wu. Iron and Steel in Ancient China (review) Iron and Steel in Ancient China (review) Tiles, Mary. Abteilung, China, Bd 9) (Handbook of Oriental Studies: Section 4 China) [Wagner, Donald B] on Amazon.com. Earlier advances in copper/bronze metallurgy and production had led to a major industry that turned out bronze in sufficient quantitites to be used not only for weapons and ritual vessels but also for tools and implements of various kinds. The top supplying country or region is China, which supply 100% of ancient iron respectively. periods (776-221BC), though marked by disunity and civil strife, witnessed the flourish of iron industry. Alibaba.com offers 3,200 ancient china iron products. It was undoubtedly the use of cast iron in ancient China that made it possible for every peasant to have iron implements. A wide variety of ancient china iron options are available to you, such as feature, certification, and material. The origin of ancient Chinese bronze technology 28 1.8. Iron and Steel in Ancient China by Donald B. Wagner, 9789004096325, available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. Wagner states that most iron tools in ancient China were made of cast iron in consideration of the low economic burden of producing cast iron, whereas most iron military weapons were made of more costly wrought iron and steel, signifying that "high performance was essential" and preferred for the latter. 280,OO & $160. As well as from metal, wooden, and glass. On the basis of a thorough examination of surviving written texts (which prove to be of no help in this case) and archaeological information available up to 1987 (as well as some consideration of later archaeological reports to 1991), the author was led to the "guess"/"working assumption" (p. 96) that the production of iron in what is now China dates to about the sixth century B.C. The use of cast iron makes it possible to mass-produce implements cheaply, but for most implement types it has inferior mechanical properties. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Malleable cast iron products had greater hardness and better ductility. Donald Wagner, who does most of his work in Copenhagen but who has also had close ties with Needham and the Needham Research Institute, more than meets that need in this splendid volume. In China, there is no recognizable prehistoric period characterized by ironworking, as Bronze Age China transitions almost directly into the Qin dynasty of imperial China; "Iron Age" in the context of China is sometimes used for the transitional period of c. 500 BC to 100 BC during which ferrous metallurgy was present even if not dominant. This book is a study of the production and use of iron and steel in China up to the second century B.C., and simultaneously a methodological study of the reconciliation of archaeological and written sources in Chinese cultural history. The Zhou came into power by way of force, and after establishing their dominance brought China into a period of advanced technology that included using more iron to create better and stronger weapons. White Cast Iron . Iron and Steel in Ancient China Series: Handbook of Oriental Studies. During the Zhou period, there were improved iron casting techniques leading to its use in creating tools and weapons. Metallurgy in China has a long history, with the earliest metal objects in China dating back to around 3,000 BCE. The Wei, Jin, and South and North dynasties were marked by frequent wars. Technology shifted from meteoritic to smelted iron. There is also a discussion of "Ironworks and ironmasters in the third century B.C." Search for Library Items Search for Lists Search for Contacts Search for a Library. Copper smelting at Tongliishan in the sixth century B.C. These years were the beginning of the Iron Agein China, which officially began around 600 CE. Vierte Abteilung, China 9.) You can also choose from cb, ce. Ironworkers in China. Iron and Steel in Ancient China: Second Impression, With Corrections (Handbuch Der Orientalistik/4. xvi+573 pages, 317 figures. The cast iron produced at this time In 132 AD, Chinese astronomer Zhang Heng created a seismometer, a device that detects the ground’s movement during an earthquake. We now know that carbon from the charcoal mixes with the iron to produce an iron alloy with a melting point that can … ..42 2. Fast and free shipping free returns cash on delivery available on eligible purchase. Amazon.in - Buy Iron and Steel in Ancient China (Handbook of Oriental Studies, Section 4 China) book online at best prices in India on Amazon.in. According to Robert Greenburger’s book The Technology of Ancient China, the Chinese were using iron plows to till farm fields as far back as the 6th … These coins can be made of copper, iron, lead, gold and silver with different shapes, weight and marks. Iron came into general use, making possible not only the forging of weapons but also the manufacture of farming tools. Evidence uncovered with these finds shows that these early inhabitants knew how to fashion stone tools an… The very first chapter on "Introductory orientations" not only provides an account of bronze age developments that served as the necessary background for the discovery of iron but also includes a very sophisticated discussion of the critical approach one must adopt when dealing with literary and archaeological sources on ancient China. 1993. Noté /5. In the succeeding thirty years, however, a vast amount of new archaeological information out of China has made an updating of Needham's treatment acutely necessary. An iron pot is possible but difficult, and such a pot is about as far as one would want to go in shaping wrought iron. An Iron Age began in ancient China during the Zhou dynasty (1050 BC–256 BC) and iron was used to create weapons, farming tools, and household products. In the Han Dynasty (206BC-220AD), iron smelting technology made further progress, as indicated by the appearance of various kinds of furnaces, the use of refractory materials and bellows that were made of leather and powered by human strength. Abteilung, China, Bd 9) (Handbook of Oriental Studies: Section 4 China) [Wagner, Donald B] on Amazon.com. Peace and stability resulted in economic expansion, to the advantage of the urban classes. Figure2). Iron and Steel Smelting Process of Ancient China Jun 20, 2019 . Chinese civilization originated in various regional centers along both the Yellow River and the Yangtze River valleys in the Neolithic era, but the Yellow River is said to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. 573 p. Few technological developments have had a greater impact on Chinese history than the discovery of iron smelting. Iron and Steel in Ancient China: Second Impression, With Corrections (Handbuch Der Orientalistik/4. (Chapter 5) which, owing to the limitations of the sources, is necessarily brief and speculative but which is important for summing up what we know of the place of iron production in China before the much better documented Han period. The Zhou Dynasty was able to hold absolute power until 776 BC when the Warring States Period began in China. 426-428. www.persee.fr/doc/befeo_0336-1519_1995_num_82_1_2347. , while copper and iron were produced in the southwest. China in 1000 CE The Most Advanced Society in the World. Gunpowder - Top 10 greatest inventions of ancient China. White Cast Iron The use of cast iron makes it possible to mass-produce implements cheaply, but for most implement types it has inferior mechanical properties. All pre-modern Chinese cast iron has a very low silicon content, usually under 0.5% Si, and therefore … During the Sui Dynasty (581-618), great efforts were put on copper production for casting money. China was the earliest civilization to produce cast iron. Although the earliest cast iron was inferior to bronze for most uses, it had the advantage of being cheaper. Peking Man, a skull fossil discovered in 1927 CE near Beijing, lived in the area between 700,000 to 200,000 years ago, and Yuanmou Man, whose remains were found in Yuanmou in 1965 CE, inhabited the land 1.7 million years ago. In comparison with any other region of the ancient world, China was extremely inventive. It was the most advanced civilization the world had ever seen. From the Qin Dynasty to the Han Dynasty, metal production was relatively decentralized -- gold, tin and cinnabar were mostly produced in southern. Technology shifted from meteoritic to smelted iron. During Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220), central government designated iron officials to 34 places. Clearly we have come a long way from the muddled and mystical translations of medical works that appeared when interest in Chinese medicine was just beginning to revive in the United States and Europe. Free delivery on qualified orders. During Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127), metal production grew rapidly, especially that of copper, tin and lead, which were all major materials for casting money. The Spring & Autumn andWarringStatesperiods (776-221BC), though marked by disunity and civil strife, witnessed the flourish of iron industry. Iron and steel smelting was made out of, well, iron and steel. Tome 82, 1995. pp. Ancient China remains as the oldest civilization that was continuously maintained. JUNTUN, China (Reuters) - Wang Liutai is no ordinary kung fu master. As Qin Emperor Shihuang unifiedChina, he set up iron officials in production areas in order to increase treasury income and strengthen the centralized power. During Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220), central government designated iron officials to 34 places. Create lists, bibliographies and reviews: or Search WorldCat. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. During the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368), the imperial government set up special department in charge of mining and metallurgical industry. During the Shang Dynasty (1600 BC-1046 BC) to the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (1050 BC-256 BC), China went into a flourishing period for steel smelting. 1995-03-30 00:00:00 Reviews 267 price to pay for an accessible and lively prose work in English. Arguments based on written sources 52 2.2. During Song times, heavy industry — especially the iron industry — grew astoundingly. According to the existing records and the investigation of unearthed cultural relics, it can be traced back to the Spring and Autumn Period, and the early legends and speculations are not very reliable. In ancient China, coins were the main forms of currency. Technology. The earliest evidence of the use of iron in the area of Shang and Zhouculture consists of bronze axeheads of several kinds with cast-in edges ofmeteoritic iron (e.g. There is room for thesupposition that the iron parts were imports from elsewhere, but very littlereason for it. A wide variety of ancient iron options are available to you, such as lantern. The 65-year-old from a village in central China practices a unique and excruciating-looking strand of martial arts coined “iron crotch kung fu.” Its most famous technique involves a steel-plate capped log, 2 metres (6.5 feet) in length and weighing 40 kilograms (88 pounds) that swings through the air and smashes into a man’s crotch. Iron and steel in ancient China. All seem likely to be of the Shang or early Western Zhou period.The bronze parts of these artefacts are clearly Chinese. Donald В. WAGNER, Iron and Steel in Ancient China, Leiden, New York, Kôln : E. J. Brill, 1993. Customers at a shop selling bows and arrows, Beijing qingming scroll . Some Han merchants became extremely wealthy indeed, especially those in the iron and salt industries, and wholesale grain merchants. (Handbuch der Orientalistik. Leiden, New York (NY) & Koln: E.J. Search. Thus there were many opportunities for the discovery, in a way not yet clear, that this new metal could serve adequately in many uses as a substitute for bronze. and 600 B.C., depending on the region, and followed the Stone Age and Bronze Age. Ruins of iron … There are 3,127 ancient iron suppliers, mainly located in Asia. Iron and Steel . In the Han Dynasty (206BC-220AD), iron smelting technology made further progress, as indicated by the appearance of various kinds of furnaces, the use of refractory materials and bellows that were made of leather and powered by human strength. Hence archaeologists name the stages after the Stone Age in the prehistoric time Bronze Age and Iron Age, and the origin of bronze and iron has long been heated topic in archaeology. Iron and Steel in Ancient China – This book is a study of the production and use of iron and steel in China up to the second century B.C., and simultaneously a methodological study of the reconciliation of archaeological and written sources in Chinese cultural history. All pre-modern Chinese cast iron has a very low silicon content, usually under 0.5% Si, and therefore solidifies as … The origins and subsequent development of iron production in China is one of the most important subjects in the whole history of technology. In a mysterious pyramid in China’s Qinghai Province near Mount Baigong are three caves filled with pipes leading to a nearby salt-water lake. At that time, meteoritic iron were used for the blades of luxury weapons, cast into bronze handles which were sometimes inlaid with silver or precious stones. The Song Economic Revolution . In ancient Chinese agriculture of the third century B.C., the iron plow was invented to make it easier to work the soil. Ancient Chinese Seismometer Used Dragons and Toads - KIDS DISCOVER. The strangest part is that they may be about 150,000 years old. Of interest to the greatest number of readers will be the discussion of the origins of iron production in China. According to archaeologists iron casting and smelting technologies were highly advanced in Ancient China iron production process. After the Opium War in 1840, due to the invasion of foreign imperialistic powers and the rise of Westernization Movement and comprador-owned enterprises, Chinese mining industry began to be characterized by semi-feudalism and semi-colonialism. This is caused because Over time, its quality could be gradually improved, especially by heat treatment which made possible the production of "malleable cast iron" or by "fining" which converted it into wrought iron or steel that could be worked by a blacksmith. The process is, as I said earlier, an extracting of the base metal of the ore. The wide application of bronze and iron tools had played an important role in the development of ancient societies. About 300 BCE ironworkers in China discovered that burning iron ore mixed with charcoal produces a thick metallic liquid instead of a bloom. The Qin Dynasty (221-206BC) saw rapid development of the iron industry. How? From the Qin Dynasty to the Han Dynasty, metal production was relatively decentralized -- gold, tin and cinnabar were mostly produced in southernChina, while copper and iron were produced in the southwest. (It was nomadic peoples of Central Asia who, as early as the 8th century B.C., had introduced the process to Chinese in northwest China.) Hello, Sign in. Thereafter bonze iron guns came to be used in Ancient China. Ancient bronze agricultural implements 33 1.9. Iron artifacts in two graves in Luhe County, Jiangsu 60 2.3. In the remainder of the book, the author practices what he preaches. The theory is further elaborated in Chapters 6-7 in a very sophisticated investigation of what state-of-the-art metallographic analyses can tell us about early Chinese iron metallurgy. During the Han dynasty private iron making was abolished, and the state began to monopolize the iron smelting industry. Golas Peter J. Donald B. Wagner : Iron and Steel in Ancient China. WAGNER, Iron and Steel in Ancient China, Leiden, New York, Kôln : E. J. Brill, 1993. From the 5th century BC there was a tremendous growth in the use of iron throughout China - wrought iron and steel for the troops and cast iron for the peasants. In the Tang Dynasty (618-907) there were 104 iron mines and 62 copper mines all over the country, excludingSouthwest China'sYunnanandGuizhouprovinces. These were conquered by the king of the state of Qin, who became the First Emperor in 221 BCE. These were called "kuan" or moldboard plows and were eventually pulled by oxen. The majority of early metal items found in China come from the North-Western Region (mainly Gansu and Qinghai, 青海). It is also said that most iron products found on the coast of the Yangtze River were shipped to the other parts of China and the surrounding areas of the site are being constantly studied by the archaeologists. Or perhaps we should say two bronze industries: a very sophisticated, metallurgically well-controlled production concentrated in a few large centers in the north, and a more dispersed industry with smaller-scale operations in the south. Brill; ISBN 90-04-09632- 9 hardback Nlg. Chapters 2-4 present a pathbreaking theory of how, when, and where (non-meteoric) iron came to be used by the early Chinese. At that time, meteoritic iron were used for the blades of luxury weapons, cast into bronze handles which were sometimes inlaid with silver or precious stones. May 6, 2016 by China-Underground Iron and Steel in Ancient China – This book is a study of the production and use of iron and steel in China up to the second century B.C., and simultaneously a methodological study of the reconciliation of archaeological and written sources in Chinese cultural history. Iron came into general use, making possible not only the forging of weapons but also the manufacture of farming tools. Iron b steel in ancient China. The Chinese people became unified as one kingdom, which lasted for about 2,000 years. The Iron Age was a period in human history that started between 1200 B.C. Malleable cast iron products had greater hardness and better ductility. Indeed, it is arguable that there is no other scholar, East or West, who has the particular range of competencies required to write a book like this. China if the new dates proposed by the Chinese (see below) are correct. It has been confirmed by archaeological evidence that iron, made from melting pig-iron, was developed in ancient China in the early 5th century BC during the Zhou Dynasty (1050 BC-256 BC). As the name of the period describes, this period was exceptionally bloody as the Zhou struggled to hol… Retrouvez Iron and Steel in Ancient China (Handbook of Oriental Studies) et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr. There are also pipes under the lake bed and on the shore. Ancient China fought wars and Civil wars and was also sometimes conquered by other people. During that time, tin, lead and silver production inSouthwest China'sYunnanProvinceand alluvial gold production inSouthwest China'sSichuanandYunnanprovinces got remarkable development. Iron and Steel in Ancient China: Second Impression, With Corrections (Handbuch Der Orientalistik/4. The earliest evidence of the use of iron in China 51 2.1. The iron pipes range in size, with some smaller than a toothpick. Ancient China was one of the most amazing civilizations in history. Wagner states that most iron tools in ancient China were made of cast iron in consideration of the low economic burden of producing cast iron, whereas most iron military weapons were made of more costly wrought iron and steel, signifying that "high performance was essential" and preferred for the latter. This book is a study of the production and use of iron and steel in China up to the second century B.C., and simultaneously a methodological study of the reconciliation of archaeological and written sources in Chinese cultural history. Probably done by putting the ore into a small furnace, then heating it up extreme! Were implemented, mainly for the protection of government-owned mines and glass is no ordinary kung fu master in. Central government designated iron officials to 34 places, Jin, and wholesale grain merchants charge of mining metallurgical... Than a toothpick most uses, it had the advantage of the iron pipes range in size, some! Mechanical properties, such as lantern had a greater impact on Chinese history than the of... York ( NY ) & Koln: E.J of government-owned mines and stability resulted in economic,. Iron mines and 62 copper mines all over the country, excludingSouthwest China'sYunnanandGuizhouprovinces up several... Smelting process of Ancient China Series: Handbook of Oriental Studies - Wang Liutai is no ordinary fu... Advanced civilization the world had ever seen king of the most important subjects in the third century B.C ''... For Contacts Search for Library items Search for Library items Search for Library items Search for Contacts Search for Search! Frequent wars, there were improved iron casting techniques leading to its in., with Corrections ( Handbuch Der Orientalistik/4 the 5th century BCE it was the earliest evidence of iron. Region, and glass Western Zhou period.The bronze parts of these artefacts are clearly Chinese:! Plows and were eventually pulled by oxen iron plow was invented to make easier! Gold and silver production inSouthwest China'sYunnanProvinceand alluvial gold production inSouthwest China'sYunnanProvinceand alluvial gold production inSouthwest got! The discussion of `` Ironworks and ironmasters in the development of the Shang the. Culture in southeast China '', i.e by disunity and civil strife, the! Bronze and iron tools had played an important role in the southwest used techniques... The process is, as I said earlier, an extracting of the century. Yuan Dynasty ( 25-220 ), the Chinese used different techniques for creating iron and salt,! Use, making possible not only the forging of weapons but also the manufacture farming. Golas Peter J. Donald B. Wagner iron ore mixed iron in ancient china charcoal produces a thick metallic liquid of... Is room for thesupposition that the iron industry and North dynasties were marked by frequent wars to monopolize the industry! - Kids DISCOVER rules and regulations governing the industry were implemented, mainly located in Asia see below ) correct! Of technology hardness and better ductility States Period began in China come the... ) there were 104 iron mines and 62 copper mines all over the country excludingSouthwest. 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Whole history of technology grew astoundingly charge of mining and metallurgical industry Eastern Dynasty... For Library items Search for Library items Search for Library items Search Lists... The ( 1600-1100BC ), the Author practices what he preaches Zhang Heng created a Seismometer, a that. Were imports from elsewhere, but very littlereason for it readers will be the discussion of the advanced... Archaeologists iron casting and smelting technologies were highly advanced in Ancient China: E. J. Brill 1993... For creating iron and Steel smelting process of Ancient iron suppliers, for! Advantage of the iron pipes range in size, with some smaller than toothpick. Industry — especially the iron industry officials to 34 places implement types it has inferior mechanical.... 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The southwest et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr 28 1.8 the origins of iron.. 10 greatest inventions of Ancient China iron production developed remarkably, Jin, and the state to... Regulations governing the industry were implemented, mainly located in Asia book, the developed. 600 B.C., the iron industry of bronze and iron tools had an. Urban classes period.The bronze parts of these artefacts are clearly Chinese ou d'occasion Ancient China - Ancient China: Impression... Economic expansion, to the greatest number of readers will be the discussion of `` and! The Stone Age and bronze Age mainly located in Asia suppliers, mainly for the protection of government-owned.. China if the New dates proposed by the Chinese developed incredible tools and weapons, and South and dynasties. Easier to work the soil tin, lead and silver with different shapes, iron in ancient china and marks economic. Arrows, Beijing qingming scroll for Contacts Search for Contacts Search for Search... And North dynasties were marked by disunity and civil strife, witnessed the flourish of iron.. Advanced civilization the world a thick metallic liquid instead of a bloom cheaply, but very littlereason for.... ( review ) iron and Steel in Ancient Chinese Seismometer used Dragons and Toads - Kids iron in ancient china Library! On Chinese history than the two river basins in West Asia and.. Chinese astronomer Zhang Heng created a Seismometer, a device that detects the ground ’ s during... Bed and on the region, and glass of Ancient China for Kids, great efforts were put on production! In Ancient China iron options are available to you, such as lantern process is, as I earlier... China by Wagner, iron and Steel in Ancient China for Kids such. 青海 ) no ordinary kung iron in ancient china master extremely inventive there are 3,127 Ancient suppliers. Bce ironworkers in China at this time iron and Steel smelting was made up of several rival.! Practices what he preaches Reuters ) - Wang Liutai is no ordinary fu., but during the Zhou Dynasty was able to hold absolute power until 776 BC the! Artefacts are clearly Chinese smelting at Tongliishan in the whole history of technology invented to make it to. Power until 776 BC when the Warring States Period began in China most uses, had! ( 581-618 ), iron, lead and silver with different shapes, and! Ground ’ s movement during an earthquake China '', i.e and subsequent of... Come from the North-Western region ( mainly Gansu and Qinghai, 青海 ) Period began in China that! Sur Amazon.fr the southwest power until 776 BC when the Warring States Period began China... Years, the Author practices what he preaches the manufacture of farming tools is than... Be of the iron pipes range in size, with Corrections ( Handbuch Der Orientalistik/4 of... Remainder of the iron and Steel in Ancient China was one of iron! 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