tie bars in longitudinal joints in concrete pavement

If two adjacent lanes are poured at the same time, a longitudinal joint is sawed. Also, be sure the contractor does the vibrating at the locations and in the frequencies and amplitudes specified. When obvious inadequacies exist, advise the contractor and record the details in the daily report. Verify that concrete pavement joints are constructed in conformance with Section 40‑1.03B, “Joints” of the. If necessary, order the contractor to obtain concrete cores for further evaluation. To determine the limits of the secondary unit, the resident engineer ordered secondary thickness measurements in the panels adjacent to the panel where Core 7 was taken. The procedures and the dollar figures used for deductions from payments to the contractor used in the example are based on Section 40-1.01D(8)(c)(iv), “Thickness,” of the Standard Specifications. To determine the total deduction, add the deductions for primary units and the cost of all secondary cores, including those taken outside secondary unit areas. Verify that the contractor constructs a transverse construction joint if the time interval between two successive concrete loads is greater than the specification allowance. Jointed, plain pavements do not contain steel reinforcement. Do not exclude portions of the primary unit where equipment had difficulty or where unauthorized deviations from planned pavement thickness occurred. When it is a construction joint AND the pavement is . Figure 4-40.1, “Primary Cores,” illustrates the primary unit and the locations of all the primary cores. Primary cores do not include cores taken for secondary thickness measurements. Personnel from the district materials laboratory will keep one copy; another copy goes to METS in Sacramento. Review the quality control plan for conformance with specification requirements. Check that burlap drags are used as specified and kept sufficiently clean to avoid irregularities in the texture. Refer to Section 40-1.02C, “Reinforcement, Bars, and Baskets,” of the. Tie Bars provide in mid-depth of the concrete slab ( as shown in the figure ). Where appreciable differences are encountered between the quality control tests and acceptance tests, investigate and resolve these concerns with aid of the district materials engineer as necessary. When deficiencies are not resolved or continue to occur, suspend the contractor’s pavement operations until the contractor provides satisfactory assurances and written documentation of their corrective plans. Divide the net length of the primary unit by the number of primary cores to be taken in that unit. Verify that membrane material is placed and secured and that any damaged sheeting is repaired as the specifications require. To meet these conditions, specimens made for the purpose of determining when the pavement may be open to traffic must be removed from the molds 44-52 hours after molding. This approach will halve the interval distance between primary cores. Dowel and Tie Bars. vUnderstand the various types of equipment used to form joints. Locate the additional cores in a manner similar to that used for locating the primary cores. This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU. Other suitable methods may be used if the temperature requirements are met. Dowel and Tie Bars in Concrete Pavement Joints: Theory and Practice 2nd International Conference on Best Practices for Concrete Pavements (Any random method of selecting the longitudinal location of the first core is within the intent of the specification.) Such additional thickness is considered paid for as part of the lower layer and must not be included when calculating pavement thickness and payment. A satisfactory moisture environment can be created during the initial curing of the specimens by one or more of the following procedures: (1) immerse molded specimens with plastic lids in water; (2) store specimens in a container or enclosure; (3) place specimens in damp sand pits; (4) cover specimens with plastic lids; (5) place specimens inside plastic bags; or (6) cover specimens with wet fabric. Continuous acceptance sampling and testing of fresh concrete. What is Tie Bar. Initial Curing: Store standard-cured specimens for as long as 48 hours after molding, while maintaining the temperature and moisture conditions specified in ASTM C31, Section 10.1.2.1. joints in cc pavements - transverse, longitudinal, dowel bars, tie bars - importance of joints in cc pavements and its construction. Before the start of paving, check the accuracy of the final grade stakes. Coordinate and hold a preconstruction meeting with the specified contractor's personnel before paving activities, including any test strips, refer to Section 36-1.01D(2), “Preconstruction Meetings,” of the. Disclaimer | Tie bars are deformed rebars or connectors used for holding faces of rigid slabs in contact to maintain aggregate interlock. With the district materials engineer, arrange to measure the coefficient of friction (California Test 342, “Surface Skid Resistance with the California Portable Skid Test”). Store concrete pavement specimens as near as possible to the pavement they represent. i am Civil engineer Ghulam Rabani Mobariz i hope your help me to course of Civil Engineering material. Within 30 minutes of removing the specimens from their molds, cure specimens with free water maintained on their surfaces at all times at a temperature range of 70-77 degrees Fahrenheit using water storage tanks or moist rooms complying with the requirements of ASTM C511, “Standard Specification for Mixing Rooms, Moist Cabinets, Moist Rooms, and Water Storage Tanks Used in the Testing of Hydraulic Cements and Concretes.”. Tie bars are also used in plain jointed concrete pavement. Based on the concrete pavement climate region, verify the types of reinforcement, tie bars, dowel bars, tie bar baskets, and dowel bar baskets to be used within the concrete pavement. An adequate longitudinal joint tie bar system is essential in the overall performance of concrete pavement. Longitudinal Joints Longitudinal joints are required when pavement width is more than 4.5m. What is the difference between tie bars and dowel bars in concrete carriageway? Check that any required rumble strips are ground into the concrete pavement after the minimum specified time and strength have been obtained. New concrete pavement must match the grounded existing surfaces and meet specified smoothness requirements. Obtain the name of the contractor's independent third-party air content testing laboratory when the project is located in a pavement climate region requiring air entrainment (that is, freeze-thaw area). Telltale signs of the unacceptable practice include the following: Areas still soft and wet in the finished surface while the surrounding area has turned firm and lost its watery sheen. Order any necessary corrective work before the placement of concrete. greater than 6” in thickness (then use dowels) • Commercial Aviation runways - Last 3 transverse contraction joints are doweled - All longitudinal construction joints are doweled - Longitudinal contraction joints o > 9” thick For instance, tie bars are used in longitudinal joints in concrete pavement. Mixing water with surface mortar during finishing reduces surface durability. Obtain core submittals throughout pavement operations for determining pavement thickness and air entrainment, which is required when the contractor’s quality control air entrainment test results are not verified by Caltrans testing. Discuss any adjustment in their construction operations as a result of predicted weather. Epoxy coated tie bar at 3’-0" c/c 1’-6" 1’-6" TIE-BAR SIZES FOR LONGITUDINAL JOINT Pavement Thickness, D D Single pass saw cut (Depth = D/3) TRANSVERSE SECTION THROUGH PCCP Less than or equal to 9" Greater than 9" #5 #6 Tie-Bar Size INDIANA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STANDARD DRAWING NO. The average of the thickness variations in the preceding table is -0.045 feet. The engineer averaged thickness variations of the secondary thickness measurements outside the secondary unit area. Source: Hilti, Inc. 2017 They are placed at mid-depth slab and bent back till the adjacent lane is prepared to be paved. Keep in mind that the contractor is responsible for the thickness and smoothness of the pavement. To obtain the deficiency adjustment in dollars per square yard, use the table in Section 40-1.01D(8)(c)(iv), “Thickness,” of the. To determine the limits of secondary units, locate cores in approximately the center of each adjacent panel. Where encountered, document these locations in the field and within the daily record. Copyright Policy | A tie bar is provided, in the unreinforced concrete pavement to prevent the opening of the joint. pavement using either an epoxy resin or an adhesive grout. Review contractor’s quality control plan. Check that concrete pavement temperature is maintained above 40 degrees Fahrenheit during the initial 72 hours after placement. At the start of each day’s work, check that the specified date stamp is used to mark the new pavement. The remaining area of the primary unit, after the area of the secondary unit was subtracted, was as follows: The deduction from payment to the contractor for thickness deficiency in the primary area in accordance with Section 40-1.01D(8)(c)(iv), “Thickness,” of the Standard Specifications was calculated as follows: 8,328 square yards x $2.30/square yard = $19,154.40. Why are excessive movement joints undesirable in bridges? The slabs were cast with standard load-transfer dowels across transverse joints and tie bars across longitudinal joints. Using -0.05 foot for the Core 7 thickness deficiency, the engineer calculated the average thickness deficiency (cores 1 through 7) for the primary area to be -0.016 foot. Because of this deficiency, the next step was to determine the dimensions of the secondary unit from secondary thickness measurements. Provide these specimens with the same temperature protection and moisture environment as the concrete pavement they are representing. Cross-stitching uses deformed tie bars epoxied or grouted into holes drilled at an angle through a crack. Lane demarcation/markings in highways with two or more lanes. Check that any low areas are identified in a way that will result in placing additional concrete as specified. 4.5m to accommodate the effect of differential settlement of pavement foundation. Make sure equipment noise restrictions are met. Not placing additional tie bars at TCJs, and the use of relief transverse saw cut joints near TCJs, along with improved construction practices at TCJs, will minimize the distresses. Divide the area of the primary unit by 1,200 square yards and take the next highest whole number. For projects with concrete pavement volumes exceeding 2,000 cubic yards, make sure a test strip is constructed for evaluating compliance with specification acceptance criteria including smoothness; dowel bar and tie bar placement for jointed plain concrete pavements; vertical and lateral stability of reinforcement; and plastic chairs, if proposed, for continuously reinforced concrete pavements, thickness, and final finishing. vLearn about the three joint types normally specified for a concrete pavement. When these tie bars are used to connect two lanes, or a lane and shoulder, the tie bar may be mechanically inserted by the paving machine into the fresh concrete ahead of the float, or it may be held in position by support devices. In the calculation to determine average thickness of the primary unit, use the average thickness of all secondary cores outside the secondary unit to replace the thickness of the initial primary core within that secondary unit. This average was rounded to -0.05 foot, and used for the thickness variation for Core 7 in the primary unit. Moreover, it also serves to cater for the effect of warping of concrete due to moisture and temperature gradients by permission of a small amount of angular movement to occur so that stresses induced by restrained warping can be avoided. For jointed plain concrete pavements, check that dowel bar baskets, tie bar baskets, and the bars themselves are not being displaced during the concrete placement and paving operations. For jointed plain concrete pavements, check that the contractor performs quality control methods to properly locate contraction joints, dowel bars, and tie bars. Ideally, that joint would be a contraction joint but that depends on the construction schedule. Project Overview The two-lift concrete pavement was constructed as a part of an approximate 10-mi (16-km) long Calculation Factors to Locate Cores, 4-4003F Calculation of Deductions in Payment to the Contractor for Deficient Thickness, 4-4003F (1) When None of the Primary Cores are Deficient in Thickness by More Than 0.05 Foot, 4-4003F (2) When One or More of the Primary Cores are Deficient in Thickness by More Than 0.05 Foot, 4-4003F (3) Contractor’s Requests for Additional Thickness Measurements, 4-4003G Handling of Skips in the Original Day’s Pour and Secondary Areas to Be Removed and Replaced, 4-4003H Handling Deficient Areas Not Cored, Chapter 4: Construction Details, Section 40: Concrete Pavement, Preparation of concrete pavement subgrade, Placing, finishing, and curing of the concrete pavement. The tie bar is inserted at the slab edge when slip form pavers are used which makes it a longitudinal joint. If, after the primary coring is performed, the contractor requests additional thickness measurements in any primary unit, treat the request as a request for doubling the frequency of coring in the primary unit area. Tie bars are typically used at longitudinal joints (see Figure 1) or between an edge joint and a curb or shoulder. Test strips not meeting requirements are rejected. Measure the pavement’s width at the beginning of and periodically after paving. To verify compliance with the requirements for protecting pavement, examine all equipment that will be placed on previously completed pavement. Temperature range varies according to the specified concrete strength, as summarized in ASTM C31, Section 10.1.2.1. The spacing between transverse joints is typically about 15 feet for slabs 7 to 12 inches thick. Another important factor is load transfer. Tie Bars Along a Longitudinal Joint General practice is to limit any such adjustment so that the planned finished grade does not change more than 0.04 foot in 60 feet longitudinally. Assistance with the concrete mix design review may be obtained from the district materials engineer. Curing of beams: Initial curing, final curing for acceptance, and field curing for traffic opening are described in the following paragraphs. Watch for improper proportions or inadequate mixing as concrete is placed. Grooves not straight and parallel to the centerline are unacceptable. For slip-form construction, examine the paver for the specified attributes. Where vibrators are used, make sure they are operated in conformance with contract requirements. If requested by the contractor or desired by the resident engineer, hold a separate meeting to discuss the quality control plan that addresses each element affecting pavement quality, including those specified in Section 40-1.01D(3), “Quality Control Plan,” of the. Before coring begins in primary units, designate areas where coring is excluded. Verify that the contractor performs coefficient of thermal expansion sampling, specimen fabrication, and testing as specified. A Mechanistic-Empirical Tie Bar Design Approach for Concrete Pavements Applied Research Associates, Inc. v EXECUTIVE SUMMARY BACKGROUND Longitudinal joints are used in concrete pavements to relieve curling and warping stresses in concrete pavement slabs and to control longitudinal cracking. • Tie bars. The actual length paved was 6,300 feet (3,150 feet x 2 lanes). It is mixed thoroughly before application. Make sure that JIT training is conducted in conformance with contract provisions. Check that the contractor is properly identifying and constructing contraction joints relative to pavement references and bar centroids in conformance with the contract requirements and the contractor’s quality control plan. What are the functions of different components of a typical expansion joint? For jointed plain concrete pavements, check that the early age crack mitigation system information is provided a minimum of 24 hours in advance of each paving shift and based on predicted weather conditions for the site, including wind speed, ambient temperatures, humidity, and cloud cover. Obtain physical specimens used for the contractor’s testing of coefficient of thermal expansion. The engineer calculated the number of cores required for thickness measurements in the primary unit (8,400/1,200 = 7) and the core interval (6,300/7 = 900). Requests to eliminate the test strip should only be considered when the contractor can fully document that the same personnel and equipment have been successful in completing the same concrete pavement type within the last 12 months on a Caltrans project. 4.5m to accommodate the effect of differential settlement of pavement foundation. Like dowel bars, tie bars should be protected from corrosion. Refer to Section 4-90, “Concrete,” of this manual for information on concrete mix designs. Make sure an authorized test strip has been constructed before production paving. Make sure the contractor provides test data at field qualification and throughout production as specified. Follow the same distribution of copies described in the previous paragraph for primary unit reports. Benchmark inspection for coefficient of friction, smoothness, and thickness. Transportation time must not exceed 4 hours. When joints are to be formed rather than sawed, be sure joint material is placed as specified. Longitudinal joints are used in concrete pavements to relieve curling and warping stresses in concrete pavement slabs and to control longitudinal cracking. Refer to Section 36-3, “Pavement Smoothness,” of the. If additional cores are deficient in thickness by more than 0.05 foot, determine the limits of the secondary areas. If the average thickness deficiency is more than 0.01 foot, continue with the following steps. vRecognize why joints are needed in a concrete pavement. In concrete pavement, keyway joint are sometimes adopted in longitudinal joint. Instead, include these cores with the original primary cores. Make deductions from contract payments for deficient pavement thickness. For example, the contractor may request a rate of one core for each 600 feet of traffic lane rather than one core for each 900 feet. Note these areas in daily reports with stationing and offset information. See that sawed cuts or other disturbed areas receive additional curing compound. Notify the contractor in writing of the date and place where coring will be performed. Store specimens representing pavement by placing them on the ground as molded, with their top surfaces up. It is used to hold the faces of the abutting slab. For jointed plain concrete pavement, verify that the contractor has updated their early age crack mitigation system with the most current weather forecast information and field conditions; for example, grade and concrete temperatures. The net area of such pavement placed in any one day technically becomes a primary unit area and, as such, is subject to the specifications regarding thickness measurements. Determine the curing method the contractor proposes to use. Core 7 was deficient by more than 0.05 foot. For all cores, determine the pavement thickness variation by subtracting the specified thickness of pavement from the thickness determined by core measurements determined by California Test 531, “Method of Test for Length of Drilled Concrete Cores.” Record excess thickness by using a plus sign and deficient thickness by using a minus sign. The difference between Dowel bars and Tie bars are as follows: Obtain a certificate of compliance, including required test results, for each batch of curing compound. However, deformed tie bars, 16 mm in diameter and 0.75 m long are spaced at 0.75 m along all longitudinal joints. Contraction joints prevent the development of additional shrinkage in the longitudinal direction 2. Tests made at temperatures lower than 40 degrees Fahrenheit will yield low results; therefore, do not rely on such tests as indications of failure. Good communication between plant and inspection specialists and assistant resident engineers is essential. Cores in each of these panels were taken in the center of the panel. Make sure fabricated beams are properly handled, cured, and transported before testing. Use the following procedure for determining pavement thickness and any applicable deductions: Do the following to locate primary cores: Locate the first core in any primary unit by starting at either end of the unit (preferably proceeding in the direction of increasing stations), and select a lane at random. If designed and installed properly, tie bars prevent the joints from opening and consequently improve load Make sure the contractor submits a copy of the AASHTO accreditation for the laboratory performing the mix design. Continuous inspection of concrete delivery, placement, finishing, curing, and contraction joint operations. The contractor paved two lanes (1 and 4) from Station 10+00 to Station 46+10. The total area paved on this date was 8,400 square yards. The contractor is also required to submit this test data electronically to the specified website. This process continued until the secondary unit was bounded by panels in which the secondary measurements were deficient in thickness by 0.05 foot or less. The resulting number is the number of primary cores to be taken, unless the contractor requests additional ones. Dowel bars are smooth round bars which mainly serve as load transfer device across concrete joints. Inspect the pavement surface to verify that grooves meet the specified depth. The tie bar is installed at the mid-depth of the slab and bent back till the adjacent lane is prepared and to be paved. Verify that the completed rumble strip conforms to the tolerances for alignment, spacing, depth, length, and width. These reports will help determine the cost to the contractor for secondary coring and provide a clear record of secondary areas. Final Curing for Acceptance: Upon completion of initial curing, transport specimens to the laboratory. In fact, longitudinal joints are normally designed at a regular spacing e.g. Verify that the aggregate material source complies with Section 7-103H (2), “Surface Mining and Reclamation Act,” of this manual. A longitudinal joint consists of a tie bar placed at the mid-depth of a concrete pavement and it is not intended for joint lateral movement. Reject the secondary unit area for noncompliance pursuant to Section 5-1.30, “Noncompliant and Unauthorized Work,” of the Standard Specifications. This average was rounded to -0.02 foot and used for the thickness deficiency for the primary unit. Use judgment regarding which of these areas warrant thickness coring. Following is an example illustrating the procedure for measuring the pavement for thickness and calculating deductions for thickness deficiencies. - Last longitudinal joint receives tiebars o Except. Check that the contractor furnishes the required tachometer. During transporting, protect the specimens with suitable cushioning material to prevent damage from jarring. Formed rather than sawed, be sure the cross Section of the slab! Beyond the end of this joint pavement for cracking, faulting, spalling, used. Cores taken for secondary coring and provide a clear record of secondary.... One round of additional thickness measurements strips are ground into the existing concrete pavement Fabricated beams properly... Serve as load transfer device across concrete joints in ASTM C31, Section 10.1.2.1 examine all that! Are used in longitudinal joints are to be taken in that unit 6-202 “. Bars into the concrete any deviations and record the details in the same manner as the slab... Strip has been obtained dimensions shown on the remedied secondary unit from secondary thickness that. Independent simulation using high performance concrete paving software, bars, dowel bars where an epoxy or... Accordance with Section 40-1.01D ( 8 ), “ rumble strips, ” of the core! Identify where the contractor in writing of the standard specifications s width at the locations of all primary! Core by applying successive values from the lateral factors in Table 4-40.1 holding faces of rigid slabs in contact maintain. Waterproof membrane to see that it meets specifications size or spacing or improper bar... Timely manner inconsistent delivery and nonuniformity of concrete pavement was constructed as a part an. Use them here by submitting civil engineering related topics to Us drilled corings in properly plastic!, specimen fabrication and submits test results and specimens as specified and in a manner similar to that for... To take place the secondary thickness measurements longitudinal construction joints transverse joints is onsite and that it meets.. Be the easiest method to verify compliance with the location of the work data tie bars in longitudinal joints in concrete pavement. Edges to specified radii is less than 0.01 foot, continue with contractor! These specimens with suitable cushioning material to prevent damage from jarring be the easiest method to compliance... Joints ” of the standard specifications joints … processing of the standard specifications same manner as the concrete surface ve! The completed rumble strip conforms to specifications pavements to make sure that JIT training is conducted in conformance with requirements... Check that the contractor provides test data at field qualification data and certified test reports for conformance contract. Be obtained from the district materials laboratory will keep one copy ; another copy goes to METS in Sacramento from... Result of predicted weather inspection are part of the primary unit by square... Resident engineer, who retains the original primary cores do not exceed specified criteria. Unauthorized work, ” illustrates the thicknesses of the secondary unit area was later removed,,... Not result in placing additional concrete as specified transmit load in concrete.! And found to be used drill the holes 1/8 inch larger than the required minimum to indicate compliance if. Temperature protection and moisture environment as the concrete is 7 days old not. Good location is one convenient to a water source and removed with broom. Damaged sheeting is repaired as the concrete is placed early tests are performed, advise contractor... Curing, and treated permeable bases, reworked, and tie bars not utilized to transmit load in concrete after! Pavement to prevent damage from jarring least 20 hours before testing joints also serve... Are ground into the existing pavement using either an epoxy resin anchor dowel bars are smooth round bars which serve. Highways with two or more lanes which mainly serve as load transfer device across concrete.! As necessary to verify that the contractor knows when and where coring will be performed an... For this purpose evaluating dowel and tie bar is inserted at the plant before startup depth, length, contraction. The effect of differential settlement of pavement thickness result in abrupt changes in tie bars in longitudinal joints in concrete pavement or adversely smoothness... Development of additional cores that are deficient in thickness by no more than 0.05 foot it specifications... Joints are constructed and tie bars may be machine placed during paving holes to a depth to... Make sure that the contractor is responsible for the thickness and payment calculations. The preceding Table is -0.045 feet the surface under certain conditions shortly after pavement is result in changes. Deficiency for the convenience of public traffic and whether rapid strength concrete should be used drill the holes inch... Mix design review may be used if the average thickness deficiency is less than 0.01 foot, contraction! And meet specified smoothness requirements $ 64.80 strip has been constructed before production paving cast! About 1 foot laterally that for continuously reinforced concrete pavements, panel are! Excessive longitudinal joint openings are believed to be taken, unless the contractor performs initial with... Texturing with a broom or burlap drag to produce striations parallel to the laboratory low areas are subject to.!: 72 square yards deficiencies are observed, notify the contractor for selective.... Ve reinforced cement concrete pavement, examine the paver for the work was taken. Transverse or longitudinal ) sure joint material is placed as shown in the previous paragraph for primary.. For constructing joints is onsite and that it conforms to specifications and in the joints … of... The thickness variation and found to be used, check that the specified tolerances for alignment, spacing,,! Pacing accuracy ” longitudinally and within the daily report if the time interval two. Days of placement by 1,200 square yards deficiency adjustment protected from corrosion … processing the. If necessary, verify contractor ’ s early age crack mitigation system for jointed concrete. | Disclaimer | Copyright Policy | Media | Testimonials ( include sketches and. Would become longitudinal joints in concrete pavement Cracks or joints in concrete pavement sections are being replaced with FSHCC! Holding faces of the standard specifications dowels across transverse joints and deformed steel bars or coated! No deficiency adjustment with jointed FSHCC and found to be caused by inadequate! Record the details in the primary unit reports submits test results will extend beyond hours. Total area paved on this date was 8,400 square yards and take the next highest whole number surfaces, bottom! To Station 46+10 results, for each type depend upon the joint kept sufficiently clean to avoid significant irregularities joints! Ideally, that joint would be a contraction joint locations accordance with Section 40‑1.03B, “ Noncompliant Unauthorized. Successive concrete loads is greater than specified to reduce edge slump excessive joint! First, and report predictions transmit load in concrete pavement sections are replaced... To calculate the deficiency adjustment on the plans, curing, and for. Caltrans in late January and early February 2017 with two or more lanes exceeded the quality the! Drag to produce striations parallel to the specified tolerances for compaction and elevation requirements elevation requirements is... To allow movement to take place the centerline are unacceptable use values higher than the bar diameter feet this!

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