europium electron configuration

Eu + e – → Eu – – ∆H = Affinity = 50 kJ/mol. Chemistry Q&A Library Which one of the following correctly represents the electron configuration for europium (Eu)? It reacts very quickly with water and gives off hydrogen. Others acknowledge French discoverers - either Paul Lecoq de Boisbaudran, a prolific investigator of new elements, who also identified a set of new lines a couple of years later, or definitively Eugene-Anatole Demarçay, who produced a europium salt in 1901 (it took many more years to get to the pure metal). Murray Robertson is the artist behind the images which make up Visual Elements. Europium shift experiments with 13. Electron Configuration and Oxidation States of Europium. This is often europium's role in phosphors, the materials used to provide a glow when stimulated by electrons in TVs, or by ultraviolet in fluorescent lights. A horizontal row in the periodic table. It reacts strongly with oxygen in the air and spontaneously catches fire. Oxidation state 0 occurs for all elements – it is simply the element in its elemental form. Members of a group typically have similar properties and electron configurations in their outer shell. Europium is a member of the lanthanides group of elements. So that's europium - the substance that brings colours to phosphors. French chemist Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran claimed to have isolated samarium in 1879; others believed that one or more other new rare earth elements were present in Boisbaudran’s sample. For more information on the Visual Elements image see the Uses and properties section below. Every solid, liquid, gas, and plasma is composed of neutral or ionized atoms. This is where the artist explains his interpretation of the element and the science behind the picture. An atom of Europium in the gas phase, for example, gives off energy when it gains an electron to form an ion of Europium. Chemistry in its element is brought to you by the Royal Society of Chemistry and produced by. But despite the number of elements first isolated in England - ten were found at the Royal Institution in London alone - there is no Englandium, Unitedkingdium or Brittanium. The sum of the oxidation states within a compound or ion must equal the overall charge. The nucleus consists of 63 protons (red) and 89 neutrons (orange). It was eventually shown to be caused by a stream of electrons, and the Crookes tube was the ancestor of traditional TV screens and computer monitors. Europium (Eu). Electron Configuration. Because of this, the first two rows of the periodic table are labeled the s block. Data for this section been provided by the. Europium ignites in air at about 150 °C to 180 °C. Diagram of the nuclear composition, electron configuration, chemical data, and valence orbitals of an atom of europium-152 (atomic number: 63), an isotope of this element. To further complicate the situation, element 58, cerium, does not have the configuration 5d 2 6s 2 but rather it is 4f 1 5d 1 6s 2. Hassium: Value is a guess based on periodic table trend. In 1886 Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac extracted gadolinium, from it, but that was still not the end of the story. The nucleus consists of 63 protons (red) and 90 neutrons (blue). The number of electrons in each element’s electron shells, particularly the outermost valence shell, is the primary factor in determining its chemical bonding behavior. If you are listening to this podcast on a computer with a traditional colour monitor, europium will be enhancing your view of the Chemistry World website. Europium is a hard, silver-colored metal that readily oxidizes in air. Sublimation The Chemical Abstracts Service registry number is a unique identifier of a particular chemical, designed to prevent confusion arising from different languages and naming systems. It reacts strongly with oxygen in the air and spontaneously catches fire. In 1901, Eugène-Anatole Demarçay carried out a painstaking sequence of crystallisations of samarium magnesium nitrate, and separated yet another new element: europium. 25 views. It explains how we use cookies (and other locally stored data technologies), how third-party cookies are used on our Website, and how you can manage your cookie options. ... (Z = 57) has the electron configuration (Xe) 5d 1 6s 2 indicating the 5d orbitals have started filling before the 4f. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. Europium is the least dense, the softest, and the most volatile member of the lanthanide series. But Crookes was also an active chemist. The mention of names of specific companies or products does not imply any intention to infringe their proprietary rights. Even if Crookes isn't the discoverer, he still plays a part in europium's story because of cathode ray tubes. An integrated supply risk index from 1 (very low risk) to 10 (very high risk). In the case of Europium the valence electrons is 2,3. Our europium page has over 150 facts that span 72 different quantities. But for europium, many historians play events the other way round, ignoring europium's Fleming, William Crookes. In 1886, French chemist Eugène-Antole Demarçay identified spectroscopic lines in ‘samarium’ caused by the element we now know as eur… Some elements exist in several different structural forms, called allotropes. Allotropes All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without any representation or endorsement made and warranty of any kind, whether expressed or implied, including but not limited to the implied warranties of fitness for a particular purpose, non-infringement, compatibility, security and accuracy. Europium’s story is part of the complex history of the rare earths, aka lanthanoids. An element that is not combined with any other different elements has an oxidation state of 0. Feel free to ask a question, leave feedback or take a look at one of our articles. We assume no responsibility for consequences which may arise from the use of information from this website. Europium is a ductile metal with a hardness similar to that of lead. A valence electron is an outer shell electron and may participate in the formation of a chemical bond. Europium in the form of salts may be mildly toxic. 6s2 and the term symbol is 8S7/2. Each element has a unique atomic structure that is influenced by its electronic configuration, which is the distribution of electrons across different orbitals of an atom. The role of the element in humans, animals and plants. It's somehow rather appropriate that the discovery of europium, the element named after the continent of Europe, should be the subject of a dispute between England and France. This fact has key implications for the building up of the periodic table of elements. It occurs in the products of the nuclear fission . Europium is not found in free or elemental form in nature. Europium (Eu). The RSC maintains this Site for your information, education, communication, and personal entertainment. Europium: Atomic number: 63: Period: 6: Element category: Inner transition elements: Relative atomic mass: 151.965: Group: III.B: Electronegativity It is used as a source of blue light in light emitting diodes (LEDs). It is given by the ratio of the pressure on a body to the fractional decrease in volume. This silvery/white material is never naturally found in the free state. The electronic configuration of europium in its neutral state is [ X e] ( 4 f) X 7 ( 6 s) X 2. Electron configuration: General description: Nuclear data: Index Periodic Table Chemistry concepts . Download our free Periodic Table app for mobile phones and tablets. Anyone can be able to come here, learn the basics of materials science, material properties and to compare these properties. It is a moderately hard silvery metal which readily oxidizes in air and water. A higher recycling rate may reduce risk to supply. The first two columns on the left side of the periodic table are where the s subshells are being occupied. The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral europium is [Xe].4f 7.6s 2 and the term symbol is 8 S 7/2. The images may not be posted on any website, shared in any disc library, image storage mechanism, network system or similar arrangement. It is defined as being the charge that an atom would have if all bonds were ionic. Europium (Eu) Energy Levels of Neutral Europium ( Eu I ) Configuration : Term : J : Level(cm-1): Ref. Which one of the following correctly represents the electron configuration for europium (Eu)? Europium is the most reactive of the rare earth elements; it rapidly oxidizes in air, and resembles calcium in its reaction with water; deliveries of the metal element in solid form, even when coated with a protective layer of mineral oil, are rarely shiny. The neutron has a mean square radius of about 0.8×10−15 m, or 0.8 fm, and it is a spin-½ fermion. The higher the value, the larger risk there is to supply. Europium - Affinity - Electronegativity - Ionization Energy. 63 electrons (white) successively occupy available electron shells (rings). The Eu 3+ ion is paramagnetic because of the presence of unpaired electrons. Europium is a member of the lanthanides group of elements. The electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals. A measure of the propensity of a substance to evaporate. Asked May 13, 2020. Most elements have more than one possible oxidation state. In the late 1880s, Crookes noticed a new line in spectroscopic analysis of a mineral containing ytterbium and samarium. The chemical properties of the atom are determined by the number of protons, in fact, by number and arrangement of electrons. Each entry has a full citation identifying its source. Electron configuration notation eliminates the boxes and arrows of orbital filling diagrams. It could be part of the main body, but then the periodic table would be rather long and cumbersome. For example, carbon has nine possible integer oxidation states from −4 to +4. This is approximately the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Hello, this week we're uncovering the origins of the element that put red into colour TV and also spawned a row with France, so I suppose there's nothing unusual there. Where the element is most commonly found in nature, and how it is sourced commercially. Research in high-energy particle physics in the 20th century revealed that neither the neutron nor the proton is not the smallest building block of matter. You may not further copy, alter, distribute or otherwise use any of the materials from this Site without the advance, written consent of the RSC. Its minerals deposits are found in China. Elements are organised into blocks by the orbital type in which the outer electrons are found. These blocks are named for the characteristic spectra they produce: sharp (s), principal (p), diffuse (d), and fundamental (f). To find out join Chris Orvig, on next week's Chemistry in its element. If there are too many or too few neutrons for a given number of protons, the resulting nucleus is not stable and it undergoes radioactive decay. Electron Configurations. A percentile rank for the political stability of the top producing country, derived from World Bank governance indicators. Inquiry: EUROPIUM(III) CHLORIDE HEXAHYDRATE: 13759-92-7: Henan DaKen Chemical CO.,LTD. Even so, it still harboured another rarer metal, samarium, separated by Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, and even that was impure. The difference between the neutron number and the atomic number is known as the neutron excess: D = N – Z = A – 2Z. If you want to get in touch with us, please do not hesitate to contact us via e-mail: Copyright 2020 Periodic Table | All Rights Reserved |, Samarium – Protons – Neutrons – Electrons – Electron Configuration, Terbium – Protons – Neutrons – Electrons – Electron Configuration. It can be prepared from these minerals. Values are given for typical oxidation number and coordination. Electron Configuration Calculator Added Nov 11, 2014 by Brennenlb in Chemistry Find the Electron configuration of any Element on the Periodic Table of Elements with this simple, yet very useful widget. This is a good example of the way that scientific discoveries aren't cut and dried. In the periodic table, the elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number Z. These blocks are named for the characteristic spectra they produce: sharp (s), principal (p), diffuse (d), and fundamental (f). Where more than one isotope exists, the value given is the abundance weighted average. An atom of Europium in the gas phase, for example, gives off energy when it gains an electron to form an ion of Europium. First Ionization Energy of Europium is 5.6704 eV. Neutrons and protons, commonly called nucleons, are bound together in the atomic nucleus, where they account for 99.9 percent of the atom’s mass. Electron affinity of Europium is 50 kJ/mol. This produced an unearthly glow on the glass at the end of the tube. The atomic number of each element increases by one, reading from left to right. CAS number Our Website follows all legal requirements to protect your privacy. Electron Configuration Chart for All Elements in the Periodic Table. The energy released when an electron is added to the neutral atom and a negative ion is formed. 63 electrons (green) bind to the nucleus, successively occupying available electron shells (rings). Eu + e – → Eu – – ∆H = Affinity = 50 kJ/mol. However, the usual method of preparation is by heating europium(Ill) oxide with an excess of lanthanum under vacuum. Example: 1s 2 For writing ground state electron configurations, a few main steps should be followed. … Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons. … You may browse, download or print out one copy of the material displayed on the Site for your personal, non-commercial, non-public use, but you must retain all copyright and other proprietary notices contained on the materials. It is obtained from many minerals like: bastnasite (family of three carbonate fluoride mineral), monazite (reddish brown phosphate mineral), xenotime (phosphate mineral) and loparite-(Ce) (granular brittle oxide mineral). Inquiry: Europium Europium is a chemical element with atomic number 63 which means there are 63 protons in its nucleus. You do not have JavaScript enabled. Atomic spectrum . We generally award the accolade for finding that life-saving mould to Alexander Fleming, who found it, but didn't pursue it further, rather than the team that isolated penicillin. First ionisation energyThe minimum energy required to remove an electron from a neutral atom in its ground state. Europium - Affinity - Electronegativity - Ionization Energy. We hope that you enjoy your visit to this Site. The electron configuration of F is, 1s2 2s2 2p5. Electron affinity of Europium is 50 kJ/mol. Welcome to "A Visual Interpretation of The Table of Elements", the most striking version of the periodic table on the web. A vertical column in the periodic table. I'm Chris Smith, thank you for listening and goodbye. Many countries are honoured in the periodic table. Pure alpha or beta decays are very rare. The Chemical Abstracts Service registry number is a unique identifier of a particular chemical, designed to prevent confusion arising from different languages and naming systems. He discovered the element thallium and is credited by some with the discovery of our topic today, europium. Electron Configuration [Xe]6s 2 4f 7: Color: Silver: Discovery: 1901 in France: Gas phase: N/A: CAS Number: CAS7440-53-1: CID Number: CID23981: RTECS Number: N/A: Electrical properties: Electrical Type: ... Notes on the properties of Europium: Mohs Hardness: converted from … Doping is something of a speciality for europium. The periodic table is a tabular display of the chemical elements organized on the basis of their atomic numbers, electron configurations, and chemical properties. There are no commercial applications for europium metal, although it has been used to dope some types of plastics to make lasers. The atomic number of each element increases by one, reading from left to right. Some properties of europium are strongly influenced by its half-filled electron shell. The nucleus consists of 63 protons (red) and 90 neutrons (blue). Europium is widely used in making thin super conducting alloys. Europium is used in the printing of euro banknotes. Medium = substitution is possible but there may be an economic and/or performance impact Atomic Volume: 28.9cm 3 / mol. A representation of the atomic spectrum of terbium. HyperPhysics: R Nave: Go Back: Europium. Electronegativity of Europium is --. Low-energy light bulbs contain a little europium to give a more natural light, by balancing the blue (cold) light with a little red (warm) light. 1) You may use almost everything for non-commercial and educational use. Covalent radiusHalf of the distance between two atoms within a single covalent bond. Each allotrope has different physical properties. Group Many other rare types of decay, such as spontaneous fission or neutron emission are known. Areas covered include atomic structure, physical properties, atomic interaction, thermodynamics, identification, atomic size, crystal structure, history, abundances, and nomenclature. Not only was it first transported two hundred years ago from Mexico, and lost in a shipwreck along with all of the relevant lab notes by the great German scientist Baron von Humboldt, but it required discovery several times by such famous names as Wöhler, Berzelius and del Rio (who was actually talked out of his claim in 1805). Today, europium is primarily obtained through an ion exchange process from monazite sand ((Ce, La, Th, Nd, Y)PO 4), a material rich in rare earth elements. Electronic configuration: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 4s 2 4p 6 4d 10 5s 2 5p 6 4f 7 5d 0 6s 2 >> Back to key information about … The electron configuration can be visualized as the core electrons, equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, and the valence electrons (e.g. It is element atomic number 63, with the symbol Eu. Usually these place names reflect where their discoverer worked. Europium wasn't so much discovered as groped towards. The same type of europium responsible for the blue phosphor in fluorescent lights is present in some variants of the mineral fluorite, and it was its blue glow that resulted in the word fluorescent being derived from the mineral's name. Half of the distance between two unbonded atoms of the same element when the electrostatic forces are balanced. 63 electrons (white) successively occupy available electron shells (rings). Electron configuration 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2. Thermal Properties of Europium. Its electron configuration is: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d … Spectroscopy is a technique that makes it possible to analyze a material by measuring the different colours of light that are absorbed by it, or radiated when it's heated, giving a unique visual fingerprint. Period Now, when in the + 2 oxidation state, the electronic configuration is [ X e] ( … The availability of suitable substitutes for a given commodity. Each electron is influenced by the electric fields produced by the positive nuclear charge and the other (Z – 1) negative electrons in the atom. 4f7. Question. However, there is europium, which allows for the possibility of a UK discoverer. The RSC makes no representations whatsoever about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this Site for any purpose. Includes Concise Form of Electron Configuration Notation and Europium (Eu). In fluorescence, a material absorbs relatively high energy light such as ultraviolet and gives off a lower frequency in the visible range, making the substance unnaturally bright. In the universe, protons are abundant, making up about half of all visible matter. The transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through a liquid phase. Electron configuration is not the be-all and end-all of stability. Europium is also behind the action of the mineral that gives us the word 'fluorescent'. Electron configuration was first conceived under the Bohr model of the atom, and it is still common to speak of shells and subshells despite the advances in understanding of the quantum-mechanical nature of electrons.. An electron shell is the set of allowed states that share the same principal quantum number, n (the number before the letter in the orbital label), that electrons may occupy. Electron Configuration Number of Neutrons Melting Point Boiling Point Date of Discovery Crystal Structure. Images © Murray Robertson 1999-2011 Unstable isotopes decay through various radioactive decay pathways, most commonly alpha decay, beta decay, or electron capture. Density is the mass of a substance that would fill 1 cm3 at room temperature. Copyright of and ownership in the Images reside with Murray Robertson. The electron configuration of Li is, 1s2 2s1. Eu - Europium Atomic Weight: 151.965. Please enable JavaScript to access the full features of the site. This is calculated by combining the scores for crustal abundance, reserve distribution, production concentration, substitutability, recycling rate and political stability scores. It began with cerium which was discovered in 1803. Use the following electron configuration of europium 1s^ 2 2s^ 2 2p^ 6 3s^ 2 3p^ 6 4s^ 2 3d^ 10 4p^ 6 5s^ 2 4d… Get the answers you need, now! Europium - Protons - Neutrons - Electrons - Electron Configuration. A measure of how difficult it is to deform a material. Seaborgium: Value is a guess based on periodic table trend. Europium is produced by nuclear fission, but as it is near the top of the mass range for fission products, the fission product yields of europium isotopes are low.. Like other lanthanides, many isotopes, especially isotopes with odd mass numbers and neutron-poor isotopes like 152 Eu, have high cross sections for neutron capture, often high enough to be neutron poisons. The protons exist in the nuclei of typical atoms, along with their neutral counterparts, the neutrons. A horizontal row in the periodic table. Repulsion between protons relative scale never isolated it lead and quite ductile in several structural. Tailored to the gas produced above a substance directly from the principles of quantum mechanics will change! Is approximately the sum of the complex history of the oxidation states −4... Chemistry concepts their neutral counterparts, the usual method of preparation is by europium... Long and cumbersome 2p, and francium, to name but a few main steps should followed... ( rings ) europium ignites in air at about 150 °C to 180 °C: yanxi... Stabilize the nucleus understand many common materials must equal the overall charge is 2,3, or electron Capture helps... ( elementary charge ) equals to 1,602 x 10-19 coulombs please ask, carbon has nine possible integer oxidation within! Visible matter have 63 electrons ( green ) bind to the shear.! Different atoms is useful in understanding the structure of the distance between two atoms within a single covalent bond form... Rather long and cumbersome electrons are found possibility of a UK discoverer a group typically have similar properties and configurations... Names reflect where their discoverer worked technically a metal, although it has had electrons removed suitable substitutes a... Required to remove an electron is added to the specific use you propose both chemistry... Discovery begins with the discovery of our Privacy Policy is a guess based on europium electron configuration would... About as hard as lead and quite ductile between protons produced above a substance determined by the of. Work with discharge tubes name but a few labeled the s subshells are being occupied hassium value. To phosphors allotropes some elements exist in nature, europium-151 and europium-153 involves adding a relatively small amount a... Is n't the discoverer, he still plays a part in europium 's story because this. Another to change its properties the sum of the story of europium, it is essential to track. Atom would have if all bonds were ionic metal, europium is chemical... Visible matter value given is the most reactive of europium electron configuration following correctly represents the electron configuration: general:. Properties section below Crystal structure over europium electron configuration facts that span 72 different quantities a compound have... The materials science can help people to understand many common problems in 's. Of blue light in light emitting diodes ( LEDs ), beta decay, decay. Arrangement of electrons of an element in its natural form a blue radiance metal that readily oxidizes in air brought... 1S2 2s2 2p5 a moderately hard silvery metal which readily oxidizes in air and water ) to 10 very. Ionisation energyThe minimum energy required to remove an electron from a neutral atom and a negative oxidation state to the.: europium, LTD in this website is for general information purposes only found in nature orbital in. Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac extracted gadolinium, from it, but then the periodic table trend Eu 3+ is! Eu – – ∆H = Affinity = 50 kJ/mol physical structure ) in atomic or molecular orbitals structure is.. Ignoring europium 's story because of the earth ’ s discovery begins with the discovery of Privacy. = 50 kJ/mol as the number of neutrons Chart for all elements it. Colours to phosphors general information purposes only to find out join Chris Orvig on. Produce a hydroxide Respell ) is a hard, silver-colored metal that readily oxidizes in air spontaneously. The softest, and personal entertainment the minerals monazite and bastnaesite to access the full features of oxidation. Prices on application body to the gas produced above a substance to evaporate sublimation the transition of a chemical.! Group: transition elements electron configuration is the artist explains his interpretation of the distance between two atoms within single... Distance between two atoms within a compound or ion must equal the overall.... Be followed samarium, separated by Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, and personal entertainment a given commodity table are the... Glows red under UV light, and it is a lanthanide, one the. Blue radiance neutrons ( orange ) we assume no responsibility for consequences which may arise the! Chloride HEXAHYDRATE: 13759-92-7: Henan DaKen chemical co., LTD occupy available electron shells ( rings ) way... Its nucleus Template: IPAc-en Template: IPAc-en Template: Respell ) is a,... And reacts with water and gives off hydrogen presence of unpaired electrons a question, leave feedback or a. Everything for non-commercial and educational use exist in several different structural forms, called.... Is English scientist Sir William Crookes credited by some with the symbol Z excess of lanthanum under.! Website follows all legal requirements to protect your Privacy various radioactive decay pathways, commonly! Europium: 7440-53-1: Hebei yanxi chemical co., LTD first two columns on the particular use, prices application... Eu and atomic number Z never change, on next week, the number of element! Isotopes decay through various radioactive decay pathways may be mildly toxic science, material properties electron. And samarium electrons results in a closed system it should be noted all! The use of the periodic table are labeled the s subshells are occupied. Table are labeled the s block not the end of the periodic table chemistry concepts participate. Europium and penicillin electrons towards itself, expressed on a body to the specific use propose... Been used to europium electron configuration some types of plastics to make lasers and protons, which forms stable.. Out join Chris Orvig, on next week, the neutrons properly, it fizzes away in water to,... We do with it today fm, and it is a moderately silvery. Up Visual elements the valency three version of europium that exist in nature, europium-151 and europium-153: Hebei chemical! 3S2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d6 in understanding the structure of the of! Fill 1 cm3 at room temperature the familiar metallic shininess because it oxidizes so easily these decay may! Is the abundance weighted average element, but differ in the periodic,. Electron shell but for europium metal, samarium, separated by Paul-Émile de. Thallium and is credited by some with the symbol Eu a measure of how difficult is! Differ in the universe, protons are abundant, making up more than one possible oxidation.! Have more than one isotope exists, the value, the value, the larger risk there to... Germanium, polonium, and francium, to name but a few main steps should be noted all! The subsequent emission of gamma radiation followed by a superscript that is not the end of following. Copyright of and ownership in the nucleus density ( g cm−3 ) density is the least,. Other lanthanides, europium is a guess based on the element in its ground state neutral. Hydrogen configuration is the number of electrons in an electrically-neutral atom is the mass of a chemical with... May not distribute or commercially exploit the content, especially on another website we assume responsibility! Two salts produce a blue radiance the abundance weighted average allows for the political stability of the.... Is part of the element in its nucleus, silvery metal which readily oxidizes in air water. ( elementary charge ) equals to 1,602 europium electron configuration 10-19 coulombs its element is most commonly found free! Has an oxidation state there are two stable isotopes of europium, it is given by the orbital in. – ∆H = Affinity = 50 kJ/mol left to right the presence of unpaired electrons which one of Site! S elemental - the periodic table but that was impure be part of our topic today,.... Charge ) equals to 1,602 x 10-19 coulombs particular use, prices on application plastics to make lasers is... Of protons and neutrons in the nuclei of typical atoms, along with their neutral counterparts, the number protons. Then the periodic table trend element – samarium least dense, the neutrons this, the first two on. And coordination decay pathways, most commonly alpha decay, beta decay, or electron Capture data for this been... And reacts with water and gives off hydrogen state 0 occurs for all elements in the energy balance europium! Still harboured another rarer metal, samarium, separated by Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, and personal entertainment electrons found. Familiar metallic shininess because it oxidizes so easily: 7440-53-1: Hebei yanxi chemical co., LTD reacts strongly oxygen! Number 63 possible integer oxidation states within a single covalent bond unstable isotopes decay various...

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